What makes Ancient Minerals
so different than other brands of Magnesium?
The answer is simple. All other natural brands of Magnesium Brine are from Ocean Surface Water explored from the current oceans, while Ancient Magnesium is derived from under the Earth, between 1500 and 2000 meters deep from layers of the Ancient Zechstein Seabed
This Ancient Seabed is contained for 250.000.000 years in the
While all other brands have the need to be filtered thoroughly because of the known contamination of theOcean, Ancient Magnesium Brine is of an untouched nature. But despite that we do have each batch of our magnesium analysed through means of (GMP) Good Manufacturers Practise and to the standards of Total Quality Control before it is released to the public. We go for the best and guarantee the high standard of our product.
Some 240-270 million years ago, the world looked fully different from the world we know now and dinosaurs were yet to be invented. All continents were more or less grouped together as one large continent “Pangaea” with a centre at the equator. In its centre a large inner sea (the
Since only a limited amount of salts can be dissolved in water, at some instant the salts will start to precipitate. When Sodium chloride (table salt) is at maximum concentration, the density of the brine (=salty water) is about
The rocks of the earth have not been immobile during the past hundreds of million years. Due to movements of the weak interior of the Earth (magma and weak rocks), its almost solid skin (of only tens of kilometres thickness) has deformed too. Pangaea has broken up in the respective continents, which have travelled thousands of kilometres and more. Mountains have formed at places where the continents collided, oceans where they parted. Some areas where more stable but still deformed. They were either tilted or uplifted, eroded away by wind and water forces at the surface, or they were buried under large layers of sand, clay or chalk or started “shape shifting”. Salts behave differently from other rocks like granites and sandstones when loaded and deformed. At relatively low temperatures in the upper crust (room temperature to 150 ºC) their long term behaviour is viscous, i.e. like honey or tar. Salts can not withstand non-uniform stresses for a long period of time and start to deform slowly. Although the salts were deposited as horizontal beds of salt, they have started to "bubble", called Halokinesis. Since the average density of salt is less than that of the rocks on top, there is a tendency for the salts to move up and for the rocks on top to sink like a brick in a pool of mud.
The original salt layers were pushed into this rising bubble (called a Diapir) and sometimes almost vanished.
Salts have moved up a thousand metre in some instances to almost reach the surface. Ground water dissolution usually hinders the Diapir to reach the surface and create a salt hill, though cases are known, for examples in
When salt flows, but doesn’t break through the overlaying rocks, it creates salt pillows in which the original stratification is still intact. This is the type of structure we find at this place.
Mining and extraction methods for salt
In ancient days one would boil a Brine from sea water to precipitate salts. This is a very energy consuming method, given the low salt content of sea water. Sometimes very saline groundwater (brine) was found inlands suitable for salt mining by groundwater extraction. In dry and warm areas solar evaporation could take over the dewatering step.
In later days salt mining started, probably from the late 500’s, from shallow salt layers or Diapirs. Salt was mined in a conventional way: first with pick-axes and saws, later with large drilling machines and conveyor belts or Lorries. The salt itself is a very strong, usually fluid tight material which is relative easily mined. Advantage of dry mining is the absence of required evaporation steps; disadvantages are the required separation steps from impurities, the large investment in shafts and subsurface equipment and the relatively labour intensiveness.
Probably the oldest method to produce salt is to evaporate the water in ‘sea water’ and hence to precipitate the salt in a solar pond. In dry and warm areas one can isolate a small part of a sea to form a shallow pond. The sun evaporates the water up to saturation level, after which NaCl precipitates. Finally the NaCl salt can be harvested. This is how all manufacturers of Magnesium extract the Magnesium from the Ocean Water.
Solution Mining is the easiest way to extract salts from the deep underground. Water injection results in salt dissolution, by which caverns are created: large brine filled spaces in the salt. Impurities like gypsum and clays do not dissolve and remain in the cavern. Although the Chinese mined salts via Bamboo pipes thousands of years ago already, solution mining is mainly a feature of the 20th century, applying mostly oil- and gas drilling techniques to reach hole depths of hundreds to thousands of metres.
If the salt is required in solid shape (not always necessary for industrial use), the brine needs to be crystallised by evaporation first. Usually a vacuum technique is applied to allow low temperature and multi step evaporation, saving on energy costs.
The mining method applies two unique features of the magnesium salt: their tendency to creep (deform under small loads) and their tendency to dissolve preferentially over sodium chloride.
The unique creep properties and the relatively low cavern pressures (of an average of 10 MPa (100 bars) below the far field rock stresses) make the salts flow towards the well, hence allowing them to be dissolved once more for production purposes. Since the magnesium salts are squeezed into the caverns like a tooth paste, this method is called “squeeze mining”. The brine from this salt is very pure (less than 1% by weight of impurities like sulphates, sodium or potassium), as a result of the extreme predominant solubility of Bischofite. The brine comes to a density at room temperature of some 1,33 kg/l. Four wells presently produce brine saturated salt Bischofite, rendering very high quality brine, with less than 1% by weight of non- Magnesium chloride salts. These brines are presently used for the production of our Magnesium Liquids with 31% MgCl2 and Magnesium Flakes with 47% MgCl2.
The usual precipitation sequence in a “dead sea”
* Gypsum (Calcium Sulphate, CaSO4.2H2O), to become anhydrite (CaSO4) under influence of pressure and temperature.
* Halite (sodium chloride, NaCl). This salt is the goal for most solution- and dry mining salt-companies and forms 80-90% of the salt deposits.
* Sylvite (potassium-chloride, KCl). Usually this salt co-precipitates with halite to form alternating thin layers of halite and Sylvite (depending on day-night or summer-winter temperature differences). The mixed salt is also called Sylvinite (which is not a mineral strictly spoken, since co precipitation on crystal scale does not occur). This salt, frequently used in fertilizers, is the second important salt-mining mineral. Usually dry (or conventional) mining is applied
* Carnallite (magnesium-potassium chloride, MgKCl3.6H2O). The precipitation of this salt marks the beginning of the end: the final stages of evaporation. This phase starts as the magnesium level has reached values over
* Bischofite (magnesium-chloride MgCl2.6H2O). Only few locations of - still in place Bischofite - are known to exist. One of them is this Zechstein Sea mining-concession area and is the purest. This salt signifies the last evaporation step after all potassium chloride has precipitated (as Carnallite) where still magnesium chloride remains.
Other “evaporates” may be present locally, either directly precipitated or re-crystallised in the million of years after first precipitation. Hundreds of other salts are known to exist, either as primary evaporate or man made industrial salt. The salt Kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) is probably the most important of “other” evaporates.
ü Extractable magnesiumchloride.hexahydrate deposits were formed in the Northern part of the
ü Density of the brine (liquid magnesium) is greater than 1,32 kg/l.
Total Quality Control
The Mining company and the Bottling company both carry the highest standards in production. Through GMP (Good Manufacturers Practise) and HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) the pureness and high quality of the product is assured in the whole chain. For all other business processes the manufacturer is certified by international quality standards ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certificates.